Evaluating the effect of technology-supported teaching on academic achievement and students’ views on the process: The example of angles



Angles, technology-supported education, GeoGebra, digital game, digital storytelling


This paper had two objectives: (1) determining the effect of the traditional method, GeoGebra-based method, digital game-based method, and digital storytelling based method on students’ academic achievement and (2) evaluating students' views on the methods related to the subject of sixth-grade angles. The research was conducted for three weeks using different training methods for each class branch. The sample consisted of 42 students. The study adopted a mixed-method research design. Data were collected using a 19-item achievement test (pretest and posttest) and a semi-structured interview guide. The data were analyzed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The qualitative data were analyzed using descriptive analysis. The results showed that technology-based education helped participants exhibit better academic performance. However, participants who received GeoGebra-based education exhibited the highest level of academic achievement. Participants stated that the greatest advantage of the traditional method was solving many questions. They noted that the greatest advantage of GeoGebra-based and digital storytelling-based education was that they helped them understand and learn subjects much more effectively. They reported that digital game-based education allowed them to reinforce subjects. For participants, the greatest disadvantage of the traditional method was having to write too much. They also added that they encountered technical problems during tech-based education. Participants recommended that teachers integrate smart board technology more into their lectures.


Aksoy, N. C., & Demir, B. K. (2019). The effect of designing digital games in mathematics teaching on the creativity of prospective teachers. Gazi University Journal of Gazi Educational Faculty, 39(1), 147-169. https://doi.org/10.17152/gefad.421615

Alkhateeb, M. A., & Al-Duwairi, A. M. (2019). The effect of using mobile applications (geogebra and sketchpad) on the students' achievement. International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, 14(3), 523-533. https://doi.org/10.29333/iejme/5754

Anastasiadis, T., Lampropoulos, G., & Siakas, K. (2018). Digital game-based learning and serious games in education. International Journal of Advances in Scientific Research and Engineering, 4(12), 139-144. https://doi.org/10.31695/IJASRE.2018.33016

Arvanitaki, M., & Zaranis, N. (2020). The use of ICT in teaching geometry in primary school. Education and Information Technologies, 25(6), 5003-5016. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-020-10210-7

Bahadır, H., Tüfekci, A., & Çakır, H. (2021). Use of digital storytelling in the context of ınterdisciplinary teaching. Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University Journal of Education, 8(2), 635-654. https://doi.org/10.21666/muefd.858098

Balaman, F., & Ataman, Ü. (2022). Teacher opinions on the usability of digital stories in pre-school values education. Journal of Interdisciplinary Educational Research, 6(13), 353-362. https://doi.org/10.57135/jier.1160170

Baldiris, S., Mancera, L., Vargas, D., & Velez, G. (2019, July). Accessibility evaluation of web content that support the mathematics, geometry and physics's teaching and learning. In 2019 IEEE 19th International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT) (Vol. 2161, pp. 295-297). IEEE. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/335576525_Accessibility_Evaluation_of_Web_Content_that_Support_the_Mathematics_Geometry_and_Physics's_Teaching_And_Learning

Baltacı, A. (2018). A conceptual review of sampling methods and sample size problems in qualitative research. Journal of Bitlis Eren University Institute of Social Sciences, 7(1), 231-274. Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/bitlissos/issue/38061/399955

Bayturan, S., & Keşan, C. (2012). The effect of computer-assisted instruction on the achievement and attitudes towards mathematics of students in mathematics education. International Journal of Global Education, 1(2), 50-57. Retrieved from http://www.ijge.net/index.php/ijge/article/view/56/57

Bekene-Bedada, T., & Machaba, M. F. (2022). The effect of GeoGebra on students’ abilities to study calculus. Education Research International, 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1155/2022/4400024

Bhagat, K. K., & Chang, C. (2015). Incorporating geogebra into geometry learning-a lesson from India. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics Science and Technology Education, 11(1), 77- 86. https://doi.org/10.12973/eurasia.2015.1307a

Biber, C., Tuna, A., & Korkmaz, S. (2013). The mistakes and the misconceptions of the eighth grade students on the subject of angles. European Journal of science and mathematics education, 1(2), 50-59. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1108200.pdf

Biber, S. K., Biber, M., & Erbay, H. N. (2022). Teachers’ perceptions on technology-assisted mathematics teaching and the interactive activities. Education and Information Technologies, 27(5), 6913-6945. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-022-10898-9

Birgin, O., & Topuz, F. (2021). Effect of the GeoGebra software-supported collaborative learning environment on seventh grade students’ geometry achievement, retention and attitudes. The Journal of Educational Research, 114(5), 474-494. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220671.2021.1983505

Büyüköztürk, Ş. (1998). Analysis of covariance (A comparative study with analysis of variance). Ankara University Journal of Faculty of Educational Sciences (JFES), 31(1). https://doi.org/10.1501/Egifak_0000000247

Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2007). Data analysis handbook for social sciences (8nd edition). Pegem Academy.

Bütüner, S. Ö., & Gür, H. (2008). Teaching of angles and triangles by using vee diagrams and mind maps. Necatibey Faculty of Education Electronic Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 2(1), 1-18. Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/39759

Byun, J., & Joung, E. (2018). Digital game‐based learning for K–12 mathematics education: A meta‐analysis. School Science and Mathematics, 118(3-4), 113-126. https://doi.org/10.1111/ssm.12271

Cai, S., Liu, E., Shen, Y., Liu, C., Li, S., & Shen, Y. (2020). Probability learning in mathematics using augmented reality: impact on student’s learning gains and attitudes. Interactive Learning Environments, 28(5), 560-573. https://doi.org/10.1080/10494820.2019.1696839

Ceylan, B. & Birinci, G. (2013). Multimedia Applications in Technopedagogical Education. Yurdakul, I. K. (Editor) Instructional technologies and material design based on technopedagogical education, pp. 131-159. Anı Publishing

Clements, D. H., & Battista, M. T. (1990). The effects of Logo on children's conceptualizations of angle and polygons. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 21(5), 356-371. https://doi.org/10.2307/749394

Creswell, J. W., & Plano Clark, V. L. (2006). Understanding mixed methods research. Designing and conducting mixed methods research, 1(1), 1-19. Retrieved from https://www.sagepub.com/sites/default/files/upm-binaries/10981_Chapter_1.pdf

Çavuş, H., & Deniz, S. (2022). The effect of technology assisted teaching on success in mathematics and geometry: A meta-analysis study. Participatory Educational Research, 9(2), 358-397. https://doi.org/10.17275/per.

Çelen, Y. (2020). Student opinions on the use of geogebra software in mathematics teaching. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 19(4), 84-88. https://doi.org/10.17719/jisr.2020.4140

Çetintav, G. (2023). Effects of the use of augmented reality applications in geometry teaching on self-regulation skills, academic motivation and achievement of secondary school students. [Unpublished master's thesis]. Bartın University.

Dahal, N., Pant, B. P., Shrestha, I. M., & Manandhar, N. K. (2022). Use of GeoGebra in teaching and learning geometric transformation in school mathematics. International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies, 16(8), 65-78. https://doi.org/10.3991/ijim.v16i08.29575

Dinçer, B., & Yılmaz, S. (2019). An experimental study on the investigation of the effect of digital storytelling on teaching of the concept of range. International Journal of New Trends in Arts, Sports & Science Education, 8(2), 49-57. Retrieved from http://www.ijtase.net/index.php/ijtase/article/view/90/95

Eftimova, D. D. (2022). Model of learnıng through problem solvıng ın geogebra actıvıty on the topıc sum of the angles ın a trıangle. Annual of Konstantin Preslavsky University of Shumen, 13. 49-61. https://doi.org/10.46687/TWBG7354

Erdener, K., & Kandemir, M. A. (2019). Investigation of the reasons for students' attitudes towards the ınteractive whiteboard use in mathematics classrooms. International Journal of Research in Education and Science, 5(1), 331-345. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1199432.pdf

Erkek, Ö., & Işiksal-Bostan, M. (2015, February). Is the use of GeoGebra advantageous in the process of argumentation?. In CERME 9-Ninth Congress of the European Society for Research in Mathematics Education (pp. 121-127).

Fahlberg-Stojanovska, L., & Trifunov, Z. (2010). Constructing and exploring triangles with GeoGebra. Annals. Computer Science Series (Anale. Seria Informatică), 8(2), 45-54. Retrieved from https://anale-informatica.tibiscus.ro/download/lucrari/8-2-03-Fahlberg.pdf

Figa, E. (2004). The virtualization of stories and storytelling. Storytelling Magazine, 16(2), 34–36.

Fırat, M., Kabakçı-Yurdakul, I. & Ersoy, A. (2014). Mixed method research experience based on an educational technology study. Journal of Qualitative Research in Education, 2(1), 64-85. https://doi.org/10.14689/issn.2148-2624.1.2s3m

Fraenkel, J. R., Wallen, N. E., & Hyun, H. H. (2012). How to design and evaluate research in education. New York: McGraw-hill.

Galitskaya, V., & Drigas, A. (2019). ICTs and geometry. International Journal of Engineering Pedagogy, 9(5), 103-111. https://doi.org/10.3991/ijep.v9i5.11241

Göksu, F. C. & Köksal, N. (2016). Teaching the lines, angles and polygons according to constructivisim supported by concept cartoons. Journal of Qualitative Research in Education, 4(3), 68-91. https://doi.org/10.14689/issn.2148-2624.1.4c3s4m

Gros, B. (2007). Digital games in education: The design of games-based learning environments. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 40(1), 23-38.

Gürsoy, G. (2021). Digital Storytelling: Developing 21st century skills in science education. European Journal of Educational Research, 10(1), 97-113. https://doi.org/10.12973/eu-jer.10.1.97

Hartono, H., Nursyahidah, F., & Kusumaningsih, W. (2021). Learning design of lines and angles for 7th-grade using joglo traditional house context. Journal of Research and Advances in Mathematics Education, 6(4), 316-330. https://doi.org/10.23917/jramathedu.v6i4.14592

Hava, K. (2021). Exploring the role of digital storytelling in student motivation and satisfaction in EFL education. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 34(7), 958-978. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2019.1650071

Hohenwarter, M. & Jones, K. (2007). Ways of linking geometry and algebra: the case of GeoGebra. Proceedings of the British Society for Research into Learning Mathematics, 27(3), 126-131.

Huang, T. H., Liu, Y. C., & Chang, H. C. (2012). Learning achievement in solving word-based mathematical questions through a computer-assisted learning system. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 15(1), 248-259. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/jeductechsoci.15.1.248

Hung, C. M., Huang, I., & Hwang, G. J. (2014). Effects of digital game-based learning on students’ self-efficacy, motivation, anxiety, and achievements in learning mathematics. Journal of Computers in Education, 1, 151-166. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40692-014-0008-8

İncekara, H., & Taşdemir, Ş. (2019). The design of a digital game for developing four operations skills ın mathematics and ıts effects on student success. Gazi Journal of Engineering Sciences, 5(3), 227-236. https://dx.doi.org/10.30855/gmbd.2019.0303.03

İslim, F. , O., Özüdoğru, G., & Sevim-Çırak, N. (2018). The use of digital storytelling in elementary Math teachers’ education. Educational Media International, 55(2), 107-122. https://doi.org/10.1080/09523987.2018.1484045

Jakes, D. S., & Brennan, J. (2005). Capturing stories, capturing lives: An introduction to digital storytelling. Retrieved from http://www.jakesonline. org/dstory_ice.pdf

Johnson, R. B., & Onwuegbuzie, A. J. (2004). Mixed methods research: A research paradigm whose time has come. Educational Researcher, 33(7), 14-26. https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X0330070

Junthong, N., Netpradit, S., & Boonlue, S. (2020). The designation of geometry teaching tools for visually-impaired students using plastic geoboards created by 3D printing. The New Educational Review, 59, 87-102. https://doi.org/10.21608/BSUJPC.2023.270978

Kara, N. (2021). Gamification in the classroom with the educational mobile mathematics game: A case study example. Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University Journal of Education, 8(1), 85-101. https://doi.org/10.21666/muefd.764044

Kaynar, B. (2020). The effects of educational and digital game-based activities on academic achievement, manner and permanence in the life studies lesson [Unpublished master’s thesis]. Atatürk University.

Kim, D., Long, Y., Zhao, Y., Zhou, S., & Alexander, J. (2021). Teacher professional identity development through digital stories. Computers & Education, 162, 104040. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2020.104040.

Kobayashi, M. (2012). A digital storytelling project in a multicultural education class for pre-service teachers. Journal of Education for Teaching, 38(2), 215-219. https://doi.org/10.1080/02607476.2012.656470

Kocakaya, S. (2012). How much the experimental works are reliable? Journal of Research in Education and Teaching, 1(2), 225-231. Retrieved from http://www.jret.org/FileUpload/ks281142/File/25.kocakaya.pdf

Kusumah, Y. S., Kustiawati, D., & Herman, T. (2020). The effect of GeoGebra in three-dimensional geometry learning on students' mathematical communication ability. International Journal of Instruction, 13(2), 895-908. https://doi.org/10.29333/iji.2020.13260a

Kutluca, T., Yalman, M., & Tum, A. (2019). Use of interactive whiteboard in teaching mathematics for sustainability and its effect on the role of teacher. Discourse and Communication for Sustainable Education, 10(1), 113-132. https://doi.org/10.2478/dcse-2019-0009

Küçükoğlu, U., & İncikabı, L. (2020). An ınvestigation on digital stories ın the context of mathematic history of secondary school students. Gaziantep University Journal of Educational Sciences, 4(2), 140-162. Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/1246885

Küçükokka, M., Gökkurt-Özdemir, B. G., Açar, M. E., Yılmaz, İ., & Yılmaz, K. (2022, February 5-6). Evaluation of digital stories designed by prospective teachers for historians of mathematics. Online Eurasian Conference on Language and Social Sciences, Daugavpils, Latvia.

Majerek, D. (2014). Application of Geogebra for teaching mathematics. Advances in Science and Technology Research Journal, 8(24), 51-54. https://doi.org/1012913/22998624/567

Mamman, M. A., & Surajo, I. G. (2021). The effect of geogebra software on attıtude and achıevement ın cırcle geometry among fırst year students of kano unıversıty of scıence and technology wudıl, kano state. Abacus (Mathematics Education Series), 46(1), 27-40. Retrieved from https://www.man-nigeria.org.ng/issues/ABA-EDU-2021-4.pdf

Mensah, J. Y., & Nabie, M. J. (2021). The effect of powerpoint ınstruction on high school students' achievement and motivation to learn geometry. International Journal of Technology in Education, 4(3), 331-350. https://doi.org/10.46328/ijte.55

Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook. Sage.

Ministry of National Education (2018). Mathematics lesson teaching program (Primary and Secondary School Grades 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8). Ankara.

Mitchelmore, M. C., & White, P. (2000). Development of angle concepts by progressive abstraction and generalisation. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 41, 209-238. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1003927811079

Mokotjo, L., & Mokhele, M. L. (2021). Challenges of integrating GeoGebra in the teaching of mathematics in South African high schools. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 9(5), 963-973. https://doi.org/10.13189/ujer.2021.090509

Moyer-Packenham, P. S., Lommatsch, C. W., Litster, K., Ashby, J., Bullock, E. K., Roxburgh, A. L., ... & Jordan, K. (2019). How design features in digital math games support learning and mathematics connections. Computers in Human Behavior, 91, 316-332. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2018.09.036

Munier, V., & Merle, H. (2009). Interdisciplinary mathematics–physics approaches to teaching the concept of angle in elementary school. International Journal of Science Education, 31(14), 1857-1895. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500690802272082

Negara, H. R. P., Nurlaelah, E., & Herman, T. (2022). Improving students' mathematical reasoning abilities through social cognitive learning using GeoGebra. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 17(18). https://doi.org/10.3991/ijet.v17i18.32151

Niemi, H., & Niu, S. J. (2021). Digital storytelling enhancing Chinese primary school students’ self-efficacy in mathematics learning. Journal of Pacific Rim Psychology, 15, 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1177/1834490921991432

Niemi, H., Shuanghong, N. İ. U., Vivitsou, M., & Baoping, L. İ. (2018). Digital storytelling for twenty-first-century competencies with math literacy and student engagement in China and Finland. Contemporary Educational Technology, 9(4), 331-353. https://doi.org/10.30935/cet.470999

Öztop, F. (2022). Effectiveness of digital technology use in mathematics teaching on ıncreasing motivation for mathematics: A meta-analysis study. Karaelmas Journal of Educational Sciences, 10(1), 15-26. Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/2244047

Prensky, M. (2001). Digital Game-Based Learning. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Robin, B. R. (2008). Digital storytelling: A powerful technology tool for the 21st century classroom. Theory into Practice, 47(3), 220. https://doi.org/10.1080/00405840802153916

Robin, B. (2006). The educational uses of digital storytelling. In C. Crawford, R. Carlsen, K. McFerrin, J. Price, R. Weber & D. Willis (Eds.), Proceedings of SITE 2006--Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference (pp. 709-716). Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE).

Robin, B. R., & McNeil, S. G. (2013). What educators should know about teaching digital storytelling. Digital Education Review, 22, 37-51. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ996781.pdf

Saltık-Ayhanöz, G. (2021). Using digital stories in mathematics education. In Saracaloğlu, S. A., Aytaç, A., Derman, G., S., Talas, M., & Yücel, A., S. (Eds). Overview of social humanities and educational sciences (pp. 172-196). Güven Plus Grup A.Ş. Publishing.

Sari, I. P., & Fathoni, A. (2022). The effect of the problem based learning model assisted by renderforest video animation on mathematics learning outcomes. International Journal of Elementary Education, 6(3), 648-656. https://doi.org/10.23887/ijee.v6i4.56304

Sarkar, P., Kadam, K., & Pillai, J. S. (2020). Learners' approaches, motivation and patterns of problem-solving on lines and angles in geometry using augmented reality. Smart Learning Environments, 7(1), 1-23. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40561-020-00124-9

Savaş, S., Güler, O., Kaya, K., Çoban, G., & Güzel, M. S. (2021). Digital games in education and learning through games. International Journal of Active Learning, 6(2), 117-140. https://doi.org/ijal.1014960.

Septian, A. (2022). Student’s mathematical connection ability through GeoGebra assisted project-based learning model. Jurnal Elemen, 8(1), 89-98. https://doi.org/10.29408/jel.v8i1.4323

Septian, A., & Prabawanto, S. (2020, August). GeoGebra in integral areas to improve mathematical representation ability. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Vol. 1613, No. 1, p. 012035). IOP Publishing.

Su, C. H., & Cheng, C. H. (2013). A mobile game-based insect learning system for improving the learning achievements. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 103, 42-50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.10.305

Sun, L., Ruokamo, H., Siklander, P., Li, B., & Devlin, K. (2021). Primary school students' perceptions of scaffolding in digital game-based learning in mathematics. Learning, Culture and Social Interaction, 28, 100457.


Şahin, E., & Kabasakal, V. (2018). Investigation of students' views on the use of dynamic mathematics programs (geogebra) in stem education approach. Journal of Social Sciences of Mus Alparslan University Anemon, 6(STEMES’18), 55-62. https://doi.org/10.18506/anemon.463877

Tabachnick, B. G. & Fidell, L. S. (2013). Using multivariate statistics. (6th Edition). Pearson.

Tabieh, A. A., Al-Hileh, M. M., Abu Afifa, H. M., & Abuzagha, H. Y. (2021). The effect of using digital storytelling on developing active listening and creative thinking skills. European Journal of Educational Research, 10(1), 13-21. https://doi.org/10.12973/eu-jer.10.1.13

Tatum, M. E. (2009). Digital storytelling as a cultural-historical activity: Effects on information text comprehension [Unpublished doctoral dissertation], University of Miami.

Tokac, U., Novak, E., & Thompson, C. G. (2019). Effects of game‐based learning on students' mathematics achievement: A meta‐analysis. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 35(3), 407-420. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcal.12347

Topuz, F., & Birgin, O. (2020). Students’ views about geogebra-supported teaching material and learning environment developed for “circle and disc” subject at the 7 th grade. Journal of Computer and Education Research, 8(15), 1-27. https://doi.org/10.18009/jcer.638142

Türk, H. S., & Akyüz, D. (2016). The effects of using dynamic geometry on eighth grade students' achievement and attitude towards triangles. International Journal for Technology in Mathematics Education, 23(3), 95-102. https://doi.org/10.1564/tme_v23.3.01

Uwurukundo, M. S., Maniraho, J. F., & Tusiime Rwibasira, M. (2022). Effect of GeoGebra software on secondary school students’ achievement in 3-D geometry. Education and Information Technologies, 27(4), 5749-5765. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-021-10852-1

Van Gils, F. (2005, February). Potential applications of digital storytelling in education. In 3rd twente student conference on IT (Vol. 7, No. 7).

Vitoria, L., & Ariska, R. (2020). Teaching mathematics using snakes and ladders game to help students understand angle measurement. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Vol. 1460, No. 1, p. 012005). IOP Publishing.

Wassie, Y. A., & Zergaw, G. A. (2019). Some of the potential affordances, challenges and limitations of using GeoGebra in mathematics education. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 15(8), em1734, 1-11. https://doi.org/10.29333/ejmste/108436

Wechselberger, U. (2009). Teaching me softly: Experiences and reflections on informal educational game design. Transactions on Edutainment II, 90-104, Springer.

Yatim, S. S. K. M., Saleh, S., Zulnaidi, H., Yew, W. T., &Yatim, S. A. M. (2022). Effects of brain-based teaching approach integrated with GeoGebra (b-geo module) on students’ conceptual understanding. International Journal of Instruction, 15(1), 327-346. https://doi.org/10.29333/iji.2022.15119a

Yıldırım, A. & Şimşek, H. (2013). Qualitative research methods in the social sciences. (9th Edition). Seçkin Publishing.

Yi, L., Ying, Z., & Wijaya, T. T. (2019). The trend of mathematics teaching method has change from fragments to systematics. Jurnal Cendekia: Jurnal Pendidikan Matematika, 3(2), 471-480. https://doi.org/10.31004/cendekia.v3i2.137

Yigit, M. (2014). An examination of pre-service secondary mathematics teachers’ conceptions of angles. The Mathematics Enthusiast, 11(3), 707-736. https://doi.org/10.54870/1551-3440.1322

Yong, S. T., Gates, P., & Harrison, I. (2016). Digital games and learning mathematics: Student, teacher and parent perspectives. International Journal of Serious Games, 3(4), 55-68. http://dx.doi.org/10.17083/ijsg.v3i4.112

Yorganci, S. (2018). A study on the views of graduate students on the use of GeoGebra in mathematics teaching. European Journal of Education Studies, 4(8), 63-78. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1272935




How to Cite

Bulan, B., & Aldemir Engin , R. (2023). Evaluating the effect of technology-supported teaching on academic achievement and students’ views on the process: The example of angles. Journal of STEM Teacher Institutes, 3(2), 87–103. Retrieved from http://jstei.com/index.php/jsti/article/view/61